[mercury-users] Announcing Mercury on Microsoft's .NET framework
trd at cs.mu.OZ.AU
Thu Jul 20 12:33:04 AEST 2000
Mercury on Microsoft's .NET framework
This mail is pretty verbose, so here's a quick overview:
- Mercury now targets Microsoft's .NET platform (alpha-quality).
We should have a beta release available soon (next month or two).
- You can write components in Mercury and inter-operate with C++, Visual
Basic, C#, COM components and many other languages.
- It will be interesting to compare the speed, interoperability and
implementation techniques of the various languages on top of .NET.
- This is just one new back-end, the existing back-end will still be supported.
- The new back-end is fairly generic, and should make other ports
(e.g. a JVM port) relatively easy.
- Licensing and distribution of Mercury is unchanged. No intellectual property
(or souls, or firstborn children) changed hands. All the support for the
.NET platform in the Mercury system will be available on the same terms
as the rest of the Mercury system, i.e. open-source under the GPL or LGPL.
Around 18 months ago, Microsoft approached the Mercury researchers at
the University of Melbourne regarding an opportunity to participate
in a research and development effort involving a multi-language
platform, under the banner "Project 7".
As well as offering access to early development tools, Microsoft offered
a substantial grant to fund researchers, an opportunity to stay at
Microsoft at Redmond for 3 months to learn the technology (alongside
researchers representing other efforts), visits to other implementors
working on other languages (e.g. Haskell), and ongoing support, technical
conferences, and a stream of snapshots of ongoing work. This work was
to remain secret (under a Non-Disclosure Agreement) until they were willing
to announce their new platform and reveal its details.
They asked for no special intellectual property rights, and indeed
except for NDAs no contracts were signed.
However, they requested that we provide feedback on what would make the
platform better for Mercury, and what criticism (or praise) we (as
language designers and implementors) could give on their work.
We decided to accept their offer, for two main reasons. First, we have always
tried to make Mercury available to the largest possible number of programmers
compatible with our means. Distributing implementations on Unix-family
platforms reaches large numbers of people, but there are even larger numbers
whom it does not reach. The overwhelming majority of these people work on
Microsoft platforms and need an implementation that works natively on that
platform (i.e. not via systems such as Cygwin). By building a backend that
targets .NET we can reach this audience. Second, we have long planned to
implement a new backend that generated higher level imperative code than
the existing backend (which basically generates assembler in C syntax),
and have had fairly detailed designs for this backend. Unfortunately,
we had no money for implementing this design, because this kind of work
is very hard to get research funding for. The grant from Microsoft has
allowed us to build a generic backend that can generate high level C code
as well as code for the .NET platform. We expect that in the future
it will also generate code for the JVM. (We have received a significant
number of requests for a JVM backend.)
The vast majority of the work for this project was conducted by Tyson Dowd
and Fergus Henderson. Several other people at the University of Melbourne
had signed the NDA, however many of the Mercury researchers did not as
we saw no point in encumbering the entire group with such legal restrictions.
As of the Microsoft Professional Developers Conference last week, this
NDA has been lifted, and we can now talk about what we have been working
on and the status of this project. This doesn't mean Microsoft is going
to ship a product right now -- the development kits that have been
distributed are pre-beta releases. But we can talk about it and people
using the pre-betas can try out our work.
Microsoft has developed a virtual machine and runtime environment
intended for hosting more than just a single language. The VM,
environment, supports services and tools are together called "Microsoft
.NET". Over the last 18 months we have seen each part called a
number of different things, but this name has been printed so many times
that it will probably stick around for a while. Some printed literature
still refers to it by it's most recent temporary name, NGWS
(Next-Generation Windows Services).
While it remains to be seen for certain whether the platform actually
achieves the aim in full, there are certainly several improvements that
are not present in similar systems (e.g. the JVM, COM/CORBA).
Certainly the platform has been targeted by Visual Basic, Visual C++
and C# (and probably JScript too). Other languages that at least
partially support the platform include COBOL, Smalltalk, Eiffel,
Component Pascal, Oberon, Haskell, ML, Scheme and Oz.
The .NET platform, like the JVM, provides a virtual environment for
running programs. There is a hardware-independent intermediate language,
a builtin garbage collector, a byte-code verifier, classes, methods,
interfaces and so on. This environment is called the Common Language
Runtime (sometimes called the CLR).
.NET differs from Microsoft's previous efforts in building cross-language
component architecture (COM/DCOM). While COM (like CORBA) allows you to
invoke methods/functions from one language to another, the common
runtime allows data-level interoperability. The difference is that with
COM/CORBA you modify objects through their interfaces, so everything is
done via function calls (possibly many of them). In contrast, to modify
an object in the common runtime you can just change it directly, since
each language uses the same data representation, same address space and
same garbage collector (when performing remote function calls the
situation becomes more similar to DCOM or CORBA).
The platform also supports garbage collected objects with normal binary
code, and you can mix pointers to the standard C heap with garbage
collected pointers. Obviously there are some penalties you pay for
doing this -- verifiability goes out the window pretty quickly, for
example. However this does allow full interoperability with any binary
development using any one of the plethora of calling conventions
Microsoft has used over the years. You also get interoperability with
COM components for free, the runtime does all necessary marshaling and
initialization, presenting the COM interfaces as if it were a set of
types implemented in the common language runtime itself.
The runtime environment offers a few features not available on the JVM
which are very useful for non-imperative non-OO languages.
Probably most critical for us is the "tailcall" instruction, which is an
very important component for efficiency in a language using recursion.
This instruction was added as a direct result of feedback from language
.NET components are self-describing: type signatures and other
information is embedded in the components. This allows a lot of
reflection on types, and it makes it possible for services such as the
Visual Studio debugger to work across different languages. We expect to
be able to debug Mercury code from within Visual Studio (although the
advanced features available in "mdb" might not work without significant
This platform is integrated into other Microsoft products too. You will
be able to invoke .NET components from Word, Excel, Access, SQL Server, etc.
And any language that can generate .NET components can be used as a
scripting language in ASP+ or can be used to program web services (well, in
theory anyway, but several interfaces need to be implemented to make
that happen). Web services are like a remote procedure call mechanism
marshaled over HTTP using XML.
Status of Mercury on .NET
We can generate code for practically all the language features of
Mercury. Some of these features need some work before they will work in
a multi-module program (for example, type class instances can't be
declared in a module other than where they are used just now).
The standard library needs to be ported to the new environment --
currently only some of the io and string modules have been ported.
Basically all the handwritten C code that is in the library needs to be
re-written. Most of the Mercury runtime is unnecessary since the common
language runtime provides the same services.
Implementation specific features such as tabling have not yet been
started. A rudimentary foreign language interface to VC++ on the .NET
platform is available, but it will need to be improved significantly
before it can be merged with the main compiler. Some of the work on the
build environment has been done (e.g. there are grades for compiling to
this platform), but automatic dependency generation is noticeably
lacking. Run-time type information is available, but not all the access
routines have been implemented (standard library again).
Currently the data representation is not yet in it's anticipated final
form. Mercury objects are represented as arrays of generic objects
(low-level data representation). We plan to switch to the high-level
data representation which will use class hierarchies to represent each
Programs such as the sample "eliza" work just fine. In fact we have a
demo where we have hooked up eliza to the Microsoft Agent COM object,
which provides speech synthesis and a cute graphical character who
speaks what eliza says. This is very easy to do with just a little C++
code. Eventually we want to make the interface to other objects cleaner
(e.g. zero C++ code needs to be written) however this is an area
requiring some work and some more research.
What Does This All Mean For Mercury?
If you're a Mercury programmer on non-Windows platforms, you can ignore
all of this. While we have spent quite a bit of development effort on
this new backend, much of it is shared with the new high-level C
backend we were developing anyway. We feel that it will be
relatively straightforward now to develop a backend to the JVM, given
that many of the kinks in our new backend have been ironed out by
targeting a similar runtime. We will continue to develop on
non-Microsoft platforms, we will continue to improve these platforms.
If you're a Mercury programmer on Windows platforms, you can soon
download a beta version of our compiler which targets the .NET platform.
You can expect in future to be able to write Web Services in Mercury,
and possibly even write ASP+ web pages in Mercury.
A part of the project not discussed much is the possibility of
integrating the Mercury development environment into Visual Studio (as a
kind of plug-in) -- we want to continue working on this in the near
Either way, this kind of support will allow us to attract a lot more
users. We have long felt that allowing developers to piecemeal adopt
better tools (where Mercury is a better tool) is a good strategy to give
more users the chance to use Mercury (rather than just admire it from
afar). This platform is a very good chance for users to write small
components in Mercury and test its mettle.
We want to keep working on improving this platform until we can
bootstrap, we'd then like to do performance comparisons and write some
papers about it all.
We want to continue to be involved in improving this platform --
Microsoft is famous for releasing successive versions of their products,
and any improvements that didn't make it into this release may make it
into future ones.
We want to improve our interfacing tools so that you can smoothly use
object oriented environments such as .NET from Mercury.
We want to work with the researchers of other similar advanced languages
(for example Haskell, ML) to inter-operate at a higher level than "mere"
We want to explore integration with Visual Studio.
What Can You Do?
We'll be releasing betas as soon as we can stabilize the work and
integrate it back into the main development line. Microsoft hasn't yet
released a downloadable development kit, however we expect they will
probably do that sometime in the future. Once you have both those bits,
you can start trying out the software.
If you would like to be involved in this research, or help with the
development, please let us know!
The Mercury Team
mercury at cs.mu.oz.au
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